Athelstan Frederick Spilhaus
Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army
Frederick Spilhaus, 86, a geophysicist, meteorologist and inventor who
became this nation's ambassador to UNESCO in 1954, died of chronic pulmonary
disease March 30, 1998at his home in Middleburg, Virginia.
Dr. Spilhaus graduated from the University of Cape Town in his native South Africa in 1931. He received a master's degree in aeronautical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a doctorate in oceanography from Cape Town. He became an American citizen in 1946.
He spent the bulk of his career at the University of Minnesota, where he became a meteorology professor and dean of the university's technology institute. He came to the Washington area in 1971 and worked for a time as a meteorologist with the National Weather Service.
At Minnesota, he developed ideas of using covered skyways and tunnels to connect buildings, protecting people in severe weather, a concept that was put into use in Minneapolis in the 1950s.
He also helped create the U.S. science exhibit at the 1962 Seattle World Fair, and developed the bathythermograph to measure temperatures in the deep ocean. He was a leading proponent of encouraging oceanography studies through the establishment of the Sea Grant Program in 1966.
Dr. Spilhaus, who had chaired the scientific advisory committee of the American Newspaper Publishers Association, wrote the "Our New Age" Sunday feature for youths, which appeared from 1957 to 1973. He also was the author of 11 books and more than 300 technical works. He was a fellow of both the American Geophysical Union and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Survivors include his wife, Kathleen Ann Fitzgerald
Spilhaus of Middleburg; two sons, A.F. Jr., of Potomac, and Karl Henry
Spilhaus of Needham, Mass.; a daughter, Margaret Ann Morse of Richmond;
13 grandchildren; and five great-grandchildren.
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution announces with great sorrow the death of Honorary Trustee and Member and former employee Dr. Athelstan Frederick Spilhaus during the night of March 29-30, 1998 at his home in Middleburg, Virginia. He was 86. Called by many a Renaissance Man, Dr. Spilhaus is well-known for inventing the bathythermograph (or BT), a temperature measuring device which played a major role in defense against German submarines during World War II, and as the "father" of the Sea Grant College program.
Active at WHOI throughout his life, Spilhaus was a WHOI employee from 1936 to 1960, serving in what is now the Physical Oceanography Department, where he is an honorary staff member. He was elected a Member of the Corporation and a Trustee in June 1950, and was named an Honorary Member and Honorary Trustee in 1982. He served on the Nominating, Audit and Advisory, and Scientific Advisory Committees, and was a Trustee of the Employees' Retirement Trust Committee. He was an Associate from 1959 to 1994.
Spilhaus, fondly referred to as "Spilly," was
born in Capetown, South Africa, November 25, 1911 and spent his early years
on a farm near Natal. He later attended schools in the United Kingdom,
but returned to South Africa and was
His long association with the Institution began in 1934, when as a student of Carl Rossby he started work on a model of a rotating ocean with a jet stream somewhat like the Gulf Stream in it. He accompanied Rossby on a summer cruise that year on R/V Atlantis, helping Rossby with a device called an Oceanograph meant to get continuous tracings of temperature versus depth in the surface layers of the ocean more easily that the standard practice of using a series of reversing thermometers attached to Nansen bottles. The Oceanograph didn't work very well, and Spilhaus thought about it during a year in South Africa. He returned to MIT and began building a better device. Henry Bigelow and Columbus Iselin provided him with some ship time in 1936 and 1937 to test his instrument, and by the summer of 1937 he had a workable device he named the bathythermograph (BT). Its initial application was for biologists and oceanographers, but Iselin saw an application in the detection of submarines in conjunction with sonar. Tests aboard Atlantis in 1937 in conjunction with several Navy vessels were promising, and in 1938 a patent was filed for manufacture of the BT by the Submarine Signal Company of Boston, which later became a division of Raytheon. Manufacture was slow, and Iselin assigned the task of building a newer design to Maurice Ewing and his student, Allyn Vine. The BT was redesigned to be used from moving ships and submarines, and about 200 were made in WHOI shops. Vine and other WHOI staff went on to teach hundreds of U.S. submariners how to use the instrument to avoid detection.
Spilhaus, who became an Assistant Professor
at New York University (NYU) in 1937 while continuing to work summers at
WHOI, also aided U.S. forces in World War II. By special act of Congress
in 1943, he became a temporary officer in the Army Air Corps although still
a British citizen. In 1944 and 1945 he ran weather stations in northern
China, living in caves near Mao Tse-Tung's headquarters behind Japanese
lines, supplying weather reports critical to U.S. bombers out of Guam and
Saipan. Spilhaus became a U.S. citizen in 1946, and that same year was
named Director of
In 1948 Spilhaus left NYU to become Dean of the Institute of Technology at the University of Minnesota, a position he held for 18 years. While at Minnesota he launched a weekly science-oriented comic strip called "Our New Age," syndicated in more than 100 newspapers around the world from 1957 to 1973. He also developed the concept of experimental cities with fixed occupancy, waste management, and state of the art communication, adopted in Sweden, Scotland and France. A futurist before the term was created, Spilhaus conceived the idea of covered skyways and tunnels connecting city buildings and allowing easy passage in inclement weather. The concept was first put into practice in Minneapolis in the 1950s.
In 1951 Spilhaus was named Scientific Director of Weapons Effects for two Nevada atomic tests, and the following year became a consultant to the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project under the Department of Defense. He was awarded the Exceptional Civilian Service Medal by the U.S. Air Force in 1952. In 1954 President Dwight Eisenhower appointed Spilhaus the first U.S. Representative to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). He served on the Committee on Oceanography of the National Academy of Sciences in 1958-1959. In 1961 President John F. Kennedy appointed him United States Commissioner to the Seattle World's Fair, where he created the U.S. science exhibit, which endures today as the Pacific Science Center. President Lyndon Johnson appointed him to the National Science Board, which he served as a member from 1966 to 1972.
In 1963 Spilhaus called for the establishment of Sea Grant Colleges at a meeting of the American Fisheries Society in Minneapolis; the Sea Grant College Program became a reality a few years later and is celebrating the 30th anniversary of the awarding of its first research projects this year. Spilhaus left the University of Minnesota in 1966 to become President of the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, a position he held until 1969. During the 1970s he served as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, as a Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and was a consultant to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. He was awarded 11 honorary degrees and received many honors, including the French Legion of Merit and Sweden's Berzelius Medal.
A man of many talents, Spilhaus was also a sculptor whose work demonstrating geophysical principles is in several cities across the country. To relax, he collected antique mechanical toys and had more than 5,000 from many countries, displayed in his "toy museum." He wrote 11 books, published more than 300 articles, and is credited with many inventions, among them the Spilhaus Space Clock and a jigsaw puzzle of the Earth's surface. He once said his life could be summed up in one sentence: "Work and play should be indistinguishable."
Spilhaus spent many summers in Woods Hole, where he often lectured on a variety of topics. In 1990 he was a summer fellow at the Marine Policy Center, continuing work on a new series of world maps and on the idea of future colonization of the seas, which he said would happen within the next 50 years. He came aboard Research Vessel Atlantis in May 1997 when the vessel visited Alexandria, Virginia, during its introductory tour.
At the time of his death Spilhaus was President
of Pan Geo, Inc. and the National Maritime Center Foundation, a Trustee
of the Aerospace Corporation and a Director of Science Service, Inc, American
Dynamics Corporation, and Donaldson Co. He was Chairman of the National
Fisheries Center and Aquarium Advisory Board of the U.S. Department of
the Interior, and was a member of the Committee on Oceanography and Committee
on Polar Research of the National Academy of Sciences. He also served as
Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the
Survivors include his widow, Kathleen Ann Fitzgerald Spilhaus, of Middleburg, VA; a daughter, Margaret Ann Morse, of Richmond, VA; two sons, A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. of Potomac, MD, who serves as Executive Director of the American Geophysical Union, and Karl Henry Spilhaus of Needham, MA; 13 grandchildren, and five great-grandchildren.
Church services were held April 4, 1998 at
the Emanual Episcopal Church in Middleburg, VA. Internment services will
be held April 13, 1998 at Arlington National Cemetery at 8:30 a.m. A reception
will follow the service at the Cosmos
In lieu of flowers, his family has requested that donations in his memory be made to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Fenno House MS#40, Woods Hole, MA 02543.
SPILHAUS, DR. ATHELSTAN FREDERICK SR.
On Sunday, March 29, 1998 of Middleburg, VA
husband of Kathleen Ann Spilhaus, father of A. F. Spilhaus, Jr., Potomac,
MD, Margaret Ann Morse, Richmond, VA and Karl Henry Spilhaus Needham, Mass.
Also 13 grandchildren and 5 great grandchildren. The family will receive
friends on Saturday, April 4 from 10 until 12 noon at Royston Funeral Home,
Middleburg, VA. Services at 1pm at Emmanuel Episcopal Church, Middleburg,
VA. Interment April 13, 1998 at 9am at Arlington National Cemetery with
full military honors. Contributions may be made to The Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institute, Woods Hole, Mass.
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Updated: 14 June 2003